Written by: F.M. Maddar, D. Walker, T.W. Chamberlain, J. Compton, A.S. Menon, M. Copley, I. Hasa
Abstract: Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) have attracted much attention as potential cathode materials for sodium-ion battery (SIBs) applications. The presence of water in these compounds plays a significant role on the electrochemical behaviour, highlighting the importance of a comprehensive understanding of the dehydration process. Herein, we investigate the properties and the dehydration effects on the structural, morphological, and electrochemical properties of a Prussian White (PW) cathode material (Na2−xFe[Fe(CN)6]1−y·zH2O). The use of such material as well as the water-based electrode processing method employed matches the requirements for low toxicity, cost, and resource abundance in large-scale applications. By combining temperature dependent in situ X-ray diffraction analysis, ex situ structural and morphological investigation and electrochemical characterization, it is found that water removal is a kinetically driven process that is strongly affected by the experimental conditions (e.g., temperature, heating rate, atmosphere) and the environment of the PW system (material vs. composite electrode). This study addresses the challenges driven by the presence of surface adsorbed and interstitial water in PW systems and offers insights into the processability of water-based PW electrodes and their electrochemical response under different dehydration conditions. Optimal conditions to transition from a sodium-rich hydrated monoclinic phase toward a sodium-rich dehydrated rhombohedral phase are identified and are found to be different when comparing data from PW material in its powder form and PW material within a composite electrode for SIB application.
Original article: https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2023/TA/D3TA02570E